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Siksika Nation Winter Count

28/09/2007 (Prepared and researched by Mervin J. Wolfleg)

 

Siksika Wintercount 1800 – 1900 c.e. (19th Century)

Buffalo: Siksika

1800: 45-60M 18,000

1807: Old Sun born

1836: Crowfoot born (Old Sun ca 29)

1838: Smallpox epidemic – 6,000 die 12,000

1843: Wars with Cree, Assiniboine and whites 8,000. Forced south of Red Deer River.

1854: Wars with Sarcee, Crow, Snakes (2x); famine 6,000

1855: Yellow River Treaty with U.S.A.

1860: (ca 54)

1861: Old Sun’s father dies (also called Old Sun)

1864: Small pox epidemic

1869: End of small pox epidemic 15 million 4,000

1870: US Army massacre 700 Piegan at Montana – mostly women and children. Siksika leave USA territory. Confederacy split for first time.

1871: (ca 65) (ca 36)

1872: Chief Big Swan dies. Old Sun and Crowfoot 7 million. Become head chiefs of North Blackfoot and South Blackfoot, respectively.

1874: North West Mounted Police enter Confederacy

1876: Sioux fight US Calvary at Little Big Horn.

1877: Blackfoot signs Treaty #7 with Queen

1878: Prairie fires; buffalo is scarce

1879: Famine 2,000

1880: No buffalo. Siksika go to USA to search

1883: Canadian Pacific Railroad built.

1884: Famine

1885: Riel’s Metis and Crees fight British.

1890: Chief Crowfoot dies. (ca.54) 1,000 500. Siksika returns from USA.

1897: Chief Old Sun dies. (c.a 90)